What is dementia?

What is Dementia

Dementia is a chronic or persistent disorder of the brain that can affect its ability to function. It is most often caused by brain disease or injury. Dementia typically affects the elderly, more specifically those aged 60 and above.

Dementia is a chronic and progressive illness that affects the brain, leading to progressive memory loss, decline in intellectual function and personality changes. The person’s impairment is severe enough to compromise a person’s day-to-day functioning and represents a decline from previous level of performance.

What causes dementia?

Dementia is caused by damage to the brain and its cells. When brain cells are damaged, they lose the ability to transmit information to each other. As a result, this condition causes progressive decline in mental abilities. It affects a person’s ability to think logically, to learn new information, make judgement and decision, planning and language. In short, all processes controlled by the brain are hindered.


What are the different types of dementia?

Types of dementia include Alzheimer’s disease, which is a progressive mental deterioration that can happen in middle or old age. It is caused by generalised degeneration of the brain. Another common type of dementia is vascular dementia, which is when thought processes are impaired. This is most often caused when a stroke blocks an artery in the brain.

There are many different types of dementia, with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia being the most common form.   

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common types of dementia, accounts for 50% – 70% of all dementia.

Alzheimer’s disease is progressive brain degenerative disease. The neuronal damage is associated with accumulation of brain deposits, destroyed nerve cells of the brain and shrinkage of the brain.      

Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia.

Vascular dementia is caused by conditions that block or reduced blood flow to the brain, resulting in brain cells being deprived of vital oxygen and nutrients. It can occur after multiple small strokes or major strokes. The symptoms can varies depending on its severity of blood vessel damage and which part of the brain is affected.

There are few conditions that can affect blood circulation, which include high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol and heart problems.